The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs that produce different types of hormones. Let’s talk about them here.
List of Hormones Secreted by the Endocrine System: The 3 Major Types
Amines are hormones derived from amino acids, the building blocks of protein. They consist of only one amino acid.
They’re versatile and can act as steroids or peptides, as well.
Amines derivatives also turn into epinephrine and norepinephrine. Both function as the key hormones when activating the body’s fight or flight response.
Types of Amines
- Primary Amines
- Secondary Amines
- Tertiary Amines
- Cyclic Amines
Amines are derivatives of the compound ammonia and are examples of hormones that are widely used in the cosmetic, water purification, medicine formulation, and crop raising industries.
2. Peptides or Proteins
Protein and peptide hormones are composed of amino acid chains and function as G protein-coupled receptors.
G Protein-Coupled Receptors Definition: Serve as an inbox for messages transmitted between cells
They are messengers responsible for various psychological and physiological functions, such as:
- Appetite: Peptides and proteins play a major role when it comes to satiety and easing hunger. Studies show that increased peptide levels can help you reduce weight since you won’t feel hungry very often.
- Growth: Proteins and peptides help develop muscle mass, strength, and definition. You can maximize this effect by increasing your protein intake and taking amino acid supplements.
- Stress Response: Studies show that increased peptide levels reduce the body’s stress response rate. A higher stress response rate means you are more prone to stress-induced complications and diseases.
Examples of Peptides and Proteins in the Body
Proteins and peptides make up our tissues and muscles and are ever-present in the communication between cells. Examples are:
Patients suffering from peptide deficiency may experience stunted growth, poor muscular development, and terrible stress response rates. If you feel your peptide levels are lower than normal, then your doctor might have to recommend undergoing peptide therapy treatments.
Doing so gives your body the protein and amino acids it needs to recover. The dosage and duration of these treatments vary, but most patients take long-term maintenance pills from time to time.
Steroid hormones are responsible for:
- Easing bodily inflammations
- Regulating metabolic rates
- Balancing salt and water levels
- The development of sexual traits, such as facial hair for men and chest growth among women
Types of Steroid Hormones
The two common naturally occurring steroid hormones are:
Corticosteroids provide relief for inflammatory reactions.
Lack of these hormones can worsen complications, such as arthritis, asthma, and allergies. That’s why patients suffering from these diseases are often prescribed artificial corticosteroids.
2. Sex Steroids
These are sex hormones secreted by the gonads, ovaries for females and testes for men.
They play an important role in keeping the body fertile, improving brain function, and stimulating cell multiplication. They’re most commonly known for their role in the development of sexual traits and characteristics.
Some people take artificial sex steroids, so they can develop sexual characteristics of the opposite sex. Women can deepen their voices and grow facial hair, while men can increase bust sizes.
The three kinds of sex steroids are the:
- Progestogens – linked to pregnancy, menstrual cycle, and embryonic development in females
- Androgens – regulates the development of male sex characteristics
- Estrogens – also play a significant role in the menstrual cycle and in the regulation of female sex characteristics
Artificial and Synthetic Steroids
While steroid hormones are only prescribed to patients who need to undergo therapy, some athletes explore these drugs despite their good health. They use synthetic steroids to boost muscle mass, improve strength, and boost fat loss.
However, abusing artificial steroids puts you at risk of:
- Blurred vision
- Gynecomastia or breast enlargement in men
- Kidney failure
Note: A healthy body already produces enough amount of hormones to maintain a lean, fit body. Opting for natural ways to lose weight when your body is still fully functional is still advised.
The Most Common Kinds of Hormones in the Body
Now you know the three major types of hormones, it’s time to break them down and learn about the most common hormones the endocrine system secretes:
- Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone found in the adrenal glands. It stimulates the said gland to secrete hormones that respond to stress.
- Human Growth Hormone (HGH) plays an important role in the growth of muscles, limbs, and internal organs
- Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is responsible for stimulating the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones; too little production leads to hypothyroidism, while excessive production causes hyperthyroidism.
- Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is essential when it comes to fertility because it stimulates sperm production among men and egg production among women
- Prolactin (PRL) stimulates the corpus luteum to produce two of the most important female hormones: estrogen and progesterone. Lack of these can make you infertile, develop secondary male characteristics, or develop serious hormonal imbalance issues.
- Luteinizing Hormone (LH) works alongside PRL to prepare the uterus for pregnancy or to stimulate ovulation
- Oxytocin (OT) causes smooth muscles in the uterus to relax during pregnancy. OT also stimulates breast milk production in mothers.
It’s the endocrine system’s job to maintain healthy levels of the different types of hormones. Failure to do so can cause systemic effects.
If you feel you’re showing signs of hormonal imbalance, consult a specialist right away. Early detection not only prevents complications and the need to undergo invasive treatments, but it also saves you a lot of money.
Liv HEALTH can connect you to various specialists who can help customize a suitable treatment plan for you. Reach out to us today!
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